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Swordfish (2001). Swordfish рыба

Swordfish - Wikipedia

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius), also known as broadbills in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category, though elusive. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood. These fish are found widely in tropical and temperate parts of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and can typically be found from near the surface to a depth of 550 m (1,800 ft).[2] They commonly reach 3 m (9.8 ft) in length, and the maximum reported is 4.55 m (14.9 ft) in length and 650 kg (1,430 lb) in weight.[3][4]

They are the sole member of their family, Xiphiidae.[5]

Taxonomy and etymology[edit]

The swordfish is named after its bill, which resembles a sword. The species name, Xiphias gladius, derives from Greek ξιφίας (xiphias, “swordfish”), itself from ξίφος (xiphos, “sword”) and from Latin gladius (“sword”).[4] This makes it superficially similar to other billfish such as marlin but, upon examination, their physiology is quite different and they are members of different families.[6]


They commonly reach 3 m (9.8 ft) in length, and the maximum reported is 4.55 m (14.9 ft) in length and 650 kg (1,430 lb) in weight.[3][4] The International Game Fish Association's all-tackle angling record for a swordfish was a 536 kg (1,182 lb) specimen taken off Chile in 1953.[2] Females are larger than males, and Pacific swordfish reach a greater size than northwest Atlantic and Mediterranean swordfish.[4] They reach maturity at 4–5 years of age and the maximum age is believed to be at least 9 years.[4] The oldest swordfish found in a recent study were a 16-year-old female and 12-year-old male. Swordfish ages are derived, with difficulty, from annual rings on fin rays rather than otoliths, since their otoliths are small in size.[7]

Swordfish are ectothermic animals; however, along with some species of sharks, they have special organs next to their eyes to heat their eyes and brains. Temperatures of 10 to 15 °C (18 to 27 °F) above the surrounding water temperature have been measured. The heating of the eyes greatly improves their vision, and consequently improves their ability to catch prey.[8][9] Of the 25,000+ fish species, only 22 are known to have a mechanism to conserve heat. These include the swordfish, marlin, tuna, and some sharks.[8][9]

Behavior and ecology[edit]

Contrary to popular belief, the "sword" is not used to spear, but instead may be used to slash at its prey to injure the prey animal, to make for an easier catch.[4] Mainly, the swordfish relies on its great speed and agility in the water to catch its prey. It is undoubtedly among the fastest fish, but the basis for the frequently quoted speed of 97 km/h (60 mph) is unreliable.[10]

Swordfish prefer water temperatures between 18 and 22 °C (64 and 72 °F),[2] but have the widest tolerance among billfish, and can be found from 5 to 27 °C (41 to 81 °F).[4] This highly migratory species typically moves towards colder regions to feed during the summer.[4] Swordfish feed daily, most often at night, when they rise to surface and near-surface waters in search of smaller fish. During the day, they commonly occur to depths of 550 m (1,800 ft) and have exceptionally been recorded as deep as 2,878 m (9,442 ft).[2] Adults feed on a wide range of pelagic fish, such as mackerel, barracudinas, silver hake, rockfish, herring, and lanternfishes, but they also take demersal fish, squid, and crustaceans.[3][4] In the northwestern Atlantic, a survey based on the stomach content of 168 individuals found 82% had eaten squid and 53% had eaten fish, including gadids, scombrids, butterfish, bluefish, and sand lance.[11] Large prey are typically slashed with the sword, while small are swallowed whole.[4]

Swordfish are not schooling fish. They swim alone or in very loose aggregations, separated by as much as 10 m (33 ft) from a neighboring swordfish. They are frequently found basking at the surface, airing their first dorsal fin. Boaters report this to be a beautiful sight, as is the powerful jumping for which the species is known. This jumping, also called breaching, may be an effort to dislodge pests, such as remoras or lampreys.[citation needed]

Almost 50 species of parasites have been documented in swordfish. In addition to remoras, lampreys, and cookiecutter sharks, this includes a wide range of invertebrates, such as tapeworms, roundworms, and copepods.[4] A comparison of the parasites of swordfish in the Atlantic and in the Mediterranean indicated that some parasites, particularly Anisakis spp. larvae identified by genetic markers, could be used as biological tags and support the existence of a Mediterranean swordfish stock.[12]

Fully adult swordfish have few natural predators. Among marine mammals, killer whales sometimes prey on adult swordfish.[4] The shortfin mako, an exceptionally fast species of shark, sometimes take on swordfish; dead or dying shortfin makos have been found with broken-off swords in their heads, revealing the danger of this type of prey.[13] Juvenile swordfish are far more vulnerable to predation, and are eaten by a wide range of predatory fish.[4]


In the North Pacific, batch spawning mainly occurs in water warmer than 24 °C (75 °F) during the spring and summer, and year-round in the equatorial Pacific.[2] In the North Atlantic, spawning is known from the Sargasso Sea,[14] and in water warmer than 23 °C (73 °F) and less than 75 m (246 ft) deep.[2] Spawning occurs from November to February in the South Atlantic off southern Brazil.[2] Spawning is year-round in the Caribbean Sea and other warm regions of the west Atlantic.[4]

Large females can carry more eggs than small females, and between 1 million to 29 million eggs have been recorded.[2] The pelagic eggs measure 1.6–1.8 mm (0.063–0.071 in) in diameter and 2.5 days after fertilization, the embryonic development occurs.[14][4] The surface-living and unique-looking larvae are 4 mm (0.16 in) long at hatching.[3][4] The bill is evident when the larvae reach 1 cm (0.4 in) in length.[3]


Global capture of swordfish in tonnes reported by the FAO, 1950–2009[15]

Swordfish were harvested by a variety of methods at small scale (notably harpoon fishing) until the global expansion of long-line fishing. They have been fished widely since ancient times in places such as the Strait of Messina, where they are still fished with traditional wooden boats called feluccas and are part of the cuisine in that area.[16][17][18]

Swordfish are vigorous, powerful fighters. When hooked or harpooned, they have been known to dive so quickly, they have impaled their swords into the ocean bottom up to their eyes. Although no unprovoked attacks on humans have been reported, swordfish can be very dangerous when harpooned. They have run their swords through the planking of small boats when hurt. In 2015, a Hawaiian fisherman was killed by a swordfish after attempting to spear the animal.[19]

Recreational fishing[edit]

Recreational fishing has developed a subspecialty called swordfishing. Because of a ban on long-lining along many parts of seashore, swordfish populations are showing signs of recovery from the overfishing caused by long-lining along the coast.

Various ways are used to fish for swordfish, but the most common method is deep-drop fishing, since swordfish spend most daylight hours very deep. The boat is allowed to drift to present a more natural bait. Swordfishing requires strong fishing rods and reels, as swordfish can become quite large, and it is not uncommon to use five pounds or more of weight to get the baits deep enough during the day, up to 2,000 feet is common. Night fishing baits are usually fished much shallower, often less than 90 metres (300 ft). Standard baits are whole mackerel, herring, mullet, bonito, or squid; one can also use live bait. Imitation squids and other imitation fish lures can also be used, and specialized lures made specifically for swordfishing often have battery-powered or glow lights. Even baits are typically presented using glow sticks or specialized deepwater-proof battery operated lights.

As food[edit]

Swordfish are classified as oily fish.[20] Many sources, including the United States Food and Drug Administration, warn about potential toxicity from high levels of methylmercury in swordfish.[21][22] The FDA recommends that young children, pregnant women, and women of child-bearing age not eat swordfish. (See mercury in fish for more details.)

The flesh of some swordfish can acquire an orange tint, reportedly from their diet of shrimp or other prey. Such fish are sold as "pumpkin swordfish", and command a premium over their whitish counterparts.

Swordfish is a particularly popular fish for cooking. Since swordfish are large animals, meat is usually sold as steaks, which are often grilled. Swordfish meat is relatively firm, and can be cooked in ways more fragile types of fish cannot (such as over a grill on skewers). The color of the flesh varies by diet, with fish caught on the East Coast of North America often being rosier.

Conservation status[edit]

Swordfish on deck during long-lining operations

In 1998, the US Natural Resources Defense Council and SeaWeb hired Fenton Communications to conduct an advertising campaign to promote their assertion that the swordfish population was in danger due to its popularity as a restaurant entree.[23]

The resulting "Give Swordfish a Break" promotion was wildly successful, with 750 prominent US chefs agreeing to remove North Atlantic swordfish from their menus, and also persuaded many supermarkets and consumers across the country.

The advertising campaign was repeated by the national media in hundreds of print and broadcast stories, as well as extensive regional coverage. It earned the Silver Anvil award from the Public Relations Society of America, as well as Time magazine's award for the top five environmental stories of 1998.

Subsequently, the US National Marine Fisheries Service proposed a swordfish protection plan that incorporated the campaign's policy suggestions. Then-US President Bill Clinton called for a ban on the sale and import of swordfish and in a landmark decision by the federal government, 132,670 sq mi (343,600 km2) of the Atlantic Ocean were placed off-limits to fishing as recommended by the sponsors.

In the North Atlantic, the swordfish stock is fully rebuilt, with biomass estimates currently 5% above the target level.[24] No robust stock assessments for swordfish in the northwestern Pacific or South Atlantic have been made, and data concerning stock status in these regions are lacking. These stocks are considered unknown and a moderate conservation concern. The southwestern Pacific stock is a moderate concern due to model uncertainty, increasing catches, and declining catch per unit effort. Overfishing is likely occurring in the Indian Ocean, and fishing mortality exceeds the maximum recommended level in the Mediterranean, thus these stocks are considered of high conservation concern.[25]

In 2010, Greenpeace International added the swordfish to its seafood red list.[26]

In culture[edit]

The swordfish (Xiphias) has been used by astronomers as another name for the constellation of Dorado.


  1. ^ Sepkoski, Jack (2002). "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Collette, B.; Acero, A.; Amorim, A.F.; Bizsel, K.; Boustany, A.; Canales Ramirez, C.; Cardenas, G.; Carpenter, K.E.; de Oliveira Leite Jr., N.; Di Natale, A.; et al. (2011). "Xiphias gladius". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2011: e.T23148A88828055. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T23148A9422329.en. Retrieved 25 December 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2018). "Xiphias gladius" in FishBase. February 2018 version.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Gardieff, S. Swordfish. Florida Museum of Natural History. Accessed 26 December 2011
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2011). "Xiphiidae" in FishBase. December 2011 version.
  6. ^ Pepperell, J. 2010. Fishes of the Open Ocean: A Natural History and Illustrated Guide. ISBN 978-0-226-65539-0
  7. ^ Jesse Marsh, Margot Stiles, 2007. "Seafood Watch, Seafood Report, Monterey Bay Aquarium, [1]"
  8. ^ a b Fritsches, K.A., Brill, R.W., and Warrant, E.J. 2005. Warm Eyes Provide Superior Vision in Swordfishes. Current Biology 15: 55–58
  9. ^ a b Hopkin, M. (2005). Swordfish heat their eyes for better vision. Nature, 10 January 2005
  10. ^ ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Haulin' Bass. Quote: "The 60 mph figure listed for the swordfish is based on a corrupted version of calculations made by Sir James Gray to estimate the impact speed necessary for a hypothetical 600-lb swordfish to embed its sword 3 feet in the timbers of ships, as has been known to occur; the figure seems to have entered the literature without question." Accessed 26 December 2011.
  11. ^ Stillwell; Kohler (1985). "Food and feeding ecology of the swordfish Xiphias gladius in the western North Atlantic Ocean with estimates of daily ration" (PDF). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 22: 239–241. doi:10.3354/meps022239. 
  12. ^ Mattiucci, S.; Garcia, A.; Cipriani, P.; Santos, M. N.; Nascetti, G.; Cimmaruta, R. (2014). "Metazoan parasite infection in the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, from the Mediterranean Sea and comparison with Atlantic populations: implications for its stock characterization". Parasite. 21: 35. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014036. PMC 4109596 Freely accessible. PMID 25057787. 
  13. ^ The Shark Trust. "Shortfin mako". Archived from the original on 2011-07-14. Retrieved 2011-12-26. 
  14. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2011). "Xiphias gladius" in FishBase. December 2011 version.
  15. ^ Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 
  17. ^ "La pesca del pesce spada". 
  18. ^ "La tecnica per la pesca del pescespada e la "Feluca" – [Ganzirri, il Peloro e lo Stretto di Messina]". 
  19. ^ Preuss, Andreas; Marco, Tony (2015-06-01). "Swordfish kills fisherman in Hawaii". CNN.com. 
  20. ^ "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 24 June 2004. 
  21. ^ FDA (1990–2010). "Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish". Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  22. ^ EPA. "What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish". Retrieved 2011-09-14. 
  23. ^ Swordfish Archived 2007-12-31 at the Wayback Machine. Fenton Communications
  24. ^ "FishWatch". 
  25. ^ Seafood Watch – Seafood Report – Swordfish Archived 2007-07-14 at the Wayback Machine. Monterey Bay Aquarium, 16 July 2008
  26. ^ "Greenpeace International Seafood Red List". Retrieved 14 September 2012. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Richard Ellis (2013). Swordfish: A Biography of the Ocean Gladiator. ISBN 978-0226922904. 

External links[edit]


Swordfish (2001) - IMDb

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When the DEA shut down its dummy corporation operation codenamed SWORDFISH in 1986, they had generated $400 million which they let sit around; fifteen years of compound interest has swelled it to $9.5 billion. A covert counter-terrorist unit called Black Cell, headed by the duplicitious and suave Gabriel Shear, wants the money to help finance their raise-the-stakes vengeance war against international terrorism, but it's all locked away behind super-encryption. He brings in convicted hacker Stanley Jobson, who only wants to see his daughter Holly again but can't afford the legal fees, to slice into the government mainframes and get the money. Written by Jeff Cross <[email protected]>

Plot Summary | Plot Synopsis
Log On. Hack In. Go Anywhere. Get Everything. See more » Edit


Release Date:
8 June 2001 (USA) See more » Edit

Box Office

$102,000,000 (estimated)

Opening Weekend USA:
$18,145,632, 10 June 2001, Wide Release

Gross USA:

Cumulative Worldwide Gross:

See more on IMDbPro »

Company Credits

Technical Specs

99 min

Color (Technicolor)

Aspect Ratio:
2.35 : 1

See full technical specs » Edit

Did You Know?

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Crazy Credits
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Referenced in The Cleveland Show: Ship'rect (2011) See more »
Lapdance (Paul Oakenfold Swordfish Mix) Written by Pharrell Williams, Chad Hugo and Malice (as Gene Thornton) Performed by N.E.R.D. (as N*E*R*D) featuring Lee Harvey and Vita Courtesy of Virgin Records America, Inc. See more »

Frequently Asked Questions

See more »


Sword-fish по Русский - Английский-Русский Словарь

en Yeah, you get the big fish, the little fish follow.

OpenSubtitles2018ru Да, ты получаешь большую рыбу, мелкие следуют за ней.

en In addition, FAO pointed out that, as part of the ongoing focus on IUU fishing, a paper had been prepared for the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the Law of the Sea, held at United Nations Headquarters in New York from # ay to # une

MultiUnru Кроме того, ФАО сообщила, что в рамках изучения явления НРП был подготовлен документ для Открытого неофициального консультативного процесса Организации Объединенных Наций по вопросам Мирового океана и морского права, совещание которого было проведено в Центральных учреждениях в Нью-Йорке # мая # июня # года

en For example, on 2 September 2010 a young man called Chau Net had been beheaded with a Samurai sword by a Vietnamese mob in Tay Ninh Province because he had told them that he was Khmer-Krom.

UN-2ru Например, 2 сентября 2010 года молодой человек по имени Чао Нет был обезглавлен с помощью самурайского меча вьетнамской толпой в провинции Тэйнинь, поскольку он сказал им, что является кхмер-кромом.

en There is long standing evidence of women being attracted to logging camps, mines, fish factories, and numerous other economic enclaves in rural areas, particularly on paydays, to sell sex to the men

MultiUnru Давно известно, что женщин приглашают в лагеря лесорубов, на шахты, рыбные фабрики и многочисленные другие хозяйственные анклавы в сельской местности, особенно в дни выдачи зарплаты, для продажи сексуальных услуг мужчинам

en In my opinion, the fact that an overall settlement of fisheries claims is found to be compatible with article # provided that the conditions of effective consultation and securing the sustainability of culturally significant forms of Maori fishing are met, does not exempt the State party from its obligations under article # paragraph

MultiUnru На мой взгляд, тот факт, что общее урегулирование претензий, касающихся рыболовства, признано совместимым со статьей # на том основании, что были выполнены условия проведения эффективных консультаций и обеспечения для маори неизменной возможности осуществления значимых в культурном плане форм рыболовства, не освобождает государство-участник от выполнения обязательств по пункту # статьи

en The nature around Lake Saimaa is perfect for independent backpacking and fishing.

Common crawlru Природа озерной части Финляндии создает замечательные возможности для организации походов и рыбной ловли.

en Topics raised by speakers included environmental crime, particularly illegal logging and fishing; counterfeiting and piracy of digital media; and trafficking in firearms.

UN-2ru В число тем, затронутых выступавшими, входили экологическая преступность, в частности незаконная вырубка лесов и незаконное рыболовство; изготовление и сбыт контрафактной продукции и пиратское использование цифровых носителей информации; и незаконный оборот огнестрельного оружия.

en Furthermore, FAO was working towards the elaboration of an international plan of action to combat IUU fishing, within the framework of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries

MultiUnru Кроме того, ФАО занимается разработкой международного плана действий для борьбы с НРП в рамках Кодекса ведения ответственного рыболовства

en Look at all the fish.

OpenSubtitles2018ru Смотри, сколько рыбы.

en Because marine ecosystems are multispecies in nature, by-catch occurs where fishing gear is not perfectly species or size selective and target species live in habitats occupied by a wide range of other species.

UN-2ru Поскольку морские экосистемы являются по своему характеру многовидовыми, прилов происходит в тех случаях, когда орудия лова не являются стопроцентно избирательными по видам или размеру особей, а являющиеся объектом промысла виды соседствуют в своих ареалах с целым рядом и других видов.

en Ukraine is preoccupied with the prospects in the CEECs for its agricultural products, consumer products, coal, fish, machinery and equipment and, above all, steel, which is already under anti-dumping investigation.

UN-2ru Украина высказывает опасения в отношении перспектив экспорта в СЦВЕ своей сельскохозяйственной продукции, потребительских товаров, угля, рыбы, машин и оборудования, и, прежде всего, стали, которая в настоящее время уже является предметом антидемпингового разбирательства.

en Actions taken by States and regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements to give effect to paragraphs 83 to 90 of General Assembly resolution 61/105 on sustainable fisheries, including through the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and related instruments

UN-2ru Меры, принимаемые государствами и региональными рыбохозяйственными организациями и договоренностями во исполнение пунктов 83–90 резолюции 61/105 Генеральной Ассамблеи об обеспечении устойчивого рыболовства, в том числе за счет реализации Соглашения 1995 года об осуществлении положений Конвенции Организации Объединенных Наций по морскому праву от 10 декабря 1982 года, которые касаются сохранения трансграничных рыбных запасов и запасов далеко мигрирующих рыб и управления ими, и связанных с ним документов

en In the context of General Assembly resolutions 59/25 and 60/31, the present section describes potentially destructive fishing practices, those marine ecosystems or features that may be most vulnerable to such practices, and their likely impacts.

UN-2ru В соответствии с резолюциями 59/25 и 60/31 Генеральной Ассамблеи в данном разделе описываются потенциально пагубные промысловые методы, те морские экосистемы или компоненты, которые могут быть особенно восприимчивы к таким методам, и вероятное воздействие таких методов.

en I got up at 5:00 to fish them from the Seine.

OpenSubtitles2018ru Лично в пять утра рыбачил на Сене.

en They're probably just fishing.

OpenSubtitles2018ru Они, видимо, просто копают.

en In the past 20 years, the bright prospects for what seemed to be an abundant supply of fish have turned dim as fish stocks around the world have collapsed, including groundfish stocks off the Atlantic coast and salmon off the Pacific coast of Canada.

UN-2ru За истекшие 20 лет омрачились некогда радужные перспективы, связанные с мировыми рыбными запасами, которые казались достаточными, но оскудели, включая запасы донных рыб на атлантическом побережье Канады и запасы лосося на ее тихоокеанском побережье.

en The Tolupán or Xicaque people produce maize, beans, oranges, mangoes and avocados, and they also sell honey and tobacco and practise small-scale hunting and fishing.

UN-2ru Толупан, или ксикаки, выращивают кукурузу, фасоль, апельсины, манго и авокадо, собирают пчелиный мед для продажи и выращивают табак, а также занимаются охотой и кустарным рыболовством.

en The main areas of private investment are tourism property development, real estate, international finance and fishing, focused on the island of Providenciales.

UN-2ru Главными сферами частного инвестирования являются развитие инфраструктуры туризма, недвижимость, международные финансовые услуги и рыболовство, сосредоточенные на острове Провиденсьялес.

en Canada indicated that it was considering joining NEAFC, inter alia, in order to promote stronger linkages and fishing relations between NAFO and NEAFC members.

UN-2ru Канада указала,что изучает вопрос о вступлении в НЕАФК с тем, в частности, чтобы способствовать более тесному взаимодействию и рыбохозяйственным связям между членами НАФО и НЕАФК.

en In February # hile and the European Union (EU) reached an agreement by which they settled their dispute with regard to both access for EU fishing vessels to Chilean ports and bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation on the conservation of swordfish stocks

MultiUnru В феврале # года Чили и Европейский союз (ЕС) достигли соглашения об урегулировании своего спора по поводу доступа рыболовных судов ЕС в чилийские порты, а также двустороннего и многостороннего научно-технического сотрудничества в области сохранения запасов меч-рыбы

en Such an uncontrolled, unproductive process is known as “ghost fishing”.

UN-2ru Такой неконтролируемый и непродуктивный процесс известен под названием «случайное рыболовство».

en Teach a man to fish, you've fed him for a lifetime.

OpenSubtitles2018ru Научишь человека рыбачить, ты накормишь его на всю жизнь.

en Tied on his prized fish hook, guarant eed me we'd catch a boat-full.

OpenSubtitles2018ru Он взял свой счастливый крючок и обещал грандиозный улов

en Due to the potential harmful effects of such devices on the conservation of cetaceans, it has recommended the use of “pingers”38 to alert cetaceans to the existence of fishing gear in order to avoid entanglement.

UN-2ru Из‐за потенциально вредного воздействия таких устройств на китообразных рекомендуется использовать «импульсаторы»38, предупреждающие китообразных о наличии рыболовных снастей, чтобы они туда не попали.

en In November 2003, the United Nations General Assembly, in its resolution 58/14, established an Assistance Fund under Part VII of the Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (1995 United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement), to assist developing States Parties in the implementation of the Agreement.

UN-2ru В ноябре 2003 года Генеральная Ассамблея Организации Объединенных Наций постановила в своей резолюции 58/14 учредить Фонд помощи по части VII Соглашения об осуществлении положений Конвенции Организации Объединенных Наций по морскому праву от 10 декабря 1982 года, которые касаются сохранения трансграничных рыбных запасов и запасов далеко мигрирующих рыб и управления ими («Соглашение Организации Объединенных Наций по рыбным запасам 1995 года»), для содействия развивающимся государствам-участникам в осуществлении Соглашения.


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